Scanning Squid Microscope Tests of the Symmetry of the High-Tc Gap

Direct observations of the half-integer flux quantum effect in rings, disks, and blanket films of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors of Y Ba2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO), GdBa2Cu3O7-delta (GdBCO), Tl2Ba2CuO6+delta (Tl2201), and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta (BSCCO) with three tricrystal substrate geometries show that their gaps have sign changes consistent with d-wave symmetry. The blanket geometry gives the Josephson penetration depth directly, and provides a means for symmetry tests without patterning. Tl2201 is a tetragonal, single-layer, cuprate without chains. When combined with photoemission results, our BSCCO results imply that the gap follows dx2-y2 symmetry closely. Asymmetric 45 degree bicrystal grain boundary samples show spontaneous magnetization, as expected for d-wave superconductors with interface roughness.

By: J. R. Kirtley, C. C. Tsuei, K. A. Moler (Princeton Univ.), J. Z. Sun, A. Gupta, Z. F. Ren (SUNY Buffalo), J. H. Wang (SUNY Buffalo), Z. Z. Li (Univ. Paris-Sud, France), H. Raffy (Univ. Paris-Sud, France), J. Mannhart, H. Hilgenkamp, B. Mayer and Ch. Gerber

Published in: Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, volume 46, (no 6), pages 3169-76 in 1996

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