CFL-Reachability in Subcubic Time

We present an O(n3/ log n)-time algorithm for the all-pairs CFL-reachability problem. The result, obtained via an O(n3/ log n) algorithm for all-pairs reachability in pushdown automata, breaks a longstanding upper bound and the “cubic bottleneck” for Datalog chain queries and many program analysis problems. Next, using a new, DFS-based, O(min{mn/log n, n3/ log2 n})-time algorithm for directed transitive closure, we solve all-pairs reachability in stack-bounded pushdown automata in time O(n3/ log2 n), improving on the previous cubic bound. Finally, we use fast matrix multiplication to compute reachability in hierarchical pushdown automata in O(n2.376) time, also breaking the known cubic bound. The results identify a gradation in the complexity of the reachability problem for pushdown automata as recursion is restricted to varying degrees.

By: Swarat Chaudhuri

Published in: RC24126 in 2006


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