Scaling Shrinkage-Based Language Models

In (Chen, 2009b), we show that a novel class-based language model, Model M, and the method of regularized minimum discrimination information (rMDI) models outperform comparable methods on moderate amounts of Wall Street Journal data. Both of these methods are motivated by the observation that shrinking the sum of parameter magnitudes in an exponential language model tends to improve performance (Chen, 2009a). In this paper, we investigate whether these shrinkage-based techniques also perform well on larger training sets and on other domains. First, we explain why good performance on large data sets is uncertain, by showing that gains relative to a baseline n-gram model tend to decrease as training set size increases. Next, we evaluate several methods for data/model combination with Model M and rMDI models on limited-scale domains, to uncover which techniques should work best on large domains. We also show how to speed up Model M by using unnormalized exponential models. Finally, we apply these methods on a variety of medium-to-large-scale domains covering several languages, and show that Model M consistently provides significant gains over existing language models for state-of-the-art systems in both speech recognition and machine translation.

By: Stanley F. Chen; Lidia Mangu; Bhuvana Ramabhadran; Ruhi Sarikaya; Abhinav Sethy

Published in: RC24970 in 2010


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