Hyper-Q Learning of Mixed Strategies in Multi-Player Normal Form Games

This paper proposes an extension of Q-Learning, dubbed "Hyper-Q" Learning,
which can learn mixed strategies in multi-player normal form matrix or stochastic games. Factors governing the possible convergence of Hyper-Q learning are addressed, including observability of the opponents' mixed strategies. A model-free Bayesian technique is proposed for mixed strategy estimation given the history of observed actions. Hyper-Q is tested in Rock-Paper-Scissors against an Iterated Gradient Ascent (IGA) player,and a Policy Hill Climber (PHC) player. The Hyper-Q learner is able to signi cantly exploit both of these opponents, and with Bayesian estimation it achieves much better results than with simple Exponential Moving Average estimation.

By: Gerald J. Tesauro

Published in: RC22801 in 2003


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